Wednesday, April 3, 2013
Aspirin works to prevent the formation of clots in your vascular system. Clots tend to form on ruptured atherosclerotic plaques that build up along the lining of your blood vessels over the years. Plaque can build up in response to injury caused by a variety of mechanisms: high blood pressure, abnormal blood sugar, toxins inhaled through smoking, and a number of other possible factors.
These clots can become dislodged from the vessel they originate from and cause even more serious conditions like a pulmonary embolism or a stroke.
You can learn more about aspirin here:
Medline PlusAmerican Heart Association

Aspirin works to prevent the formation of clots in your vascular system. Clots tend to form on ruptured atherosclerotic plaques that build up along the lining of your blood vessels over the years. Plaque can build up in response to injury caused by a variety of mechanisms: high blood pressure, abnormal blood sugar, toxins inhaled through smoking, and a number of other possible factors.

These clots can become dislodged from the vessel they originate from and cause even more serious conditions like a pulmonary embolism or a stroke.

You can learn more about aspirin here:

Medline Plus
American Heart Association

Friday, July 20, 2012
Blood clots occur when blood thickens in an area and clumps together. When clots start moving around the bloodstream, they may get caught in various areas of the body, leading to severe damage. DVTs are most common in adults over the age of 60. They’re more likely to occur with people who have a family history of blood clots, have fractures in the pelvis or legs, have given birth in the last six months, are obese, have recently had surgery, have cancer, and more. The clots form when you are inactive, so long periods of inactivity, be it on a long flight or when you are bedridden, can increase risks of DVTs. You can learn more here: WebMD MedlinePlus Nat’l Heart Lung and Blood Institute
Blood clots occur when blood thickens in an area and clumps together. When clots start moving around the bloodstream, they may get caught in various areas of the body, leading to severe damage.

DVTs are most common in adults over the age of 60. They’re more likely to occur with people who have a family history of blood clots, have fractures in the pelvis or legs, have given birth in the last six months, are obese, have recently had surgery, have cancer, and more. The clots form when you are inactive, so long periods of inactivity, be it on a long flight or when you are bedridden, can increase risks of DVTs.

You can learn more here:
WebMD
MedlinePlus
Nat’l Heart Lung and Blood Institute
Monday, July 16, 2012
ADH works by signaling the collecting ducts of the kidney to promote increased reabsorption of water into your system. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior lobe of your pituitary gland. ADH can be blocked by a number of drugs, including alcohol. This is why the need to urinate increases with alcohol consumption as well as explains the need to stay hydrated while drinking, as the alcohol blocks ADH from working properly. You can learn more here: ColoState Medline Plus
ADH works by signaling the collecting ducts of the kidney to promote increased reabsorption of water into your system. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior lobe of your pituitary gland.

ADH can be blocked by a number of drugs, including alcohol. This is why the need to urinate increases with alcohol consumption as well as explains the need to stay hydrated while drinking, as the alcohol blocks ADH from working properly.

You can learn more here:
ColoState
Medline Plus
Sunday, July 15, 2012
Bradycardia is not necessarily bad. In young fit adults and athletes or when you are in a deep sleep, a low heart rate is actually very common. However, it can also be indicative of an underlying problem with the heart’s electrical impulses - be it that the sinoatrial node, the heart’s natural pacemaker, is malfunctioning, or the electrical pathways have been disrupted. If the bradycardia is severe, the heart may not be pumping enough blood for bodily circulation, which can be life threatening. Bradycardia is most often developed by adults over 65 years old. As you age, your cardiovascular system may start failing, leading to problems like bradycardia. You can learn more here: WebMD American Heart Association
Bradycardia is not necessarily bad. In young fit adults and athletes or when you are in a deep sleep, a low heart rate is actually very common.

However, it can also be indicative of an underlying problem with the heart’s electrical impulses - be it that the sinoatrial node, the heart’s natural pacemaker, is malfunctioning, or the electrical pathways have been disrupted. If the bradycardia is severe, the heart may not be pumping enough blood for bodily circulation, which can be life threatening.

Bradycardia is most often developed by adults over 65 years old. As you age, your cardiovascular system may start failing, leading to problems like bradycardia.

You can learn more here:
WebMD
American Heart Association
Saturday, July 14, 2012
This state allows a patient to under surgeries and procedures that would otherwise cause them to undergo severe amounts of pain and possibly traumatize them. There are four parts of general anesthesia: - analgesics (painkillers) makes the patient unresponsive to pain - amnesiacs so the patient will have no memory of any unpleasantness of the procedure - prevention of spontaneous ventilation due to muscle paralysis - sedatives keep heart rate down and body calm through procedure You can learn more here: MedScape MedlinePlus
This state allows a patient to under surgeries and procedures that would otherwise cause them to undergo severe amounts of pain and possibly traumatize them.

There are four parts of general anesthesia:
- analgesics (painkillers) makes the patient unresponsive to pain
- amnesiacs so the patient will have no memory of any unpleasantness of the procedure
- prevention of spontaneous ventilation due to muscle paralysis
- sedatives keep heart rate down and body calm through procedure

You can learn more here:
MedScape

MedlinePlus
Friday, July 13, 2012
Sputum is mucus coughed up from your respiratory tract. Similar to chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis can be treated symptomatically. As long as the patient is getting enough oxygen, the body will recover on its own. Cough suppressants such as codeine and dextromethorphan might be prescribed. NSAIDs can help with pain relief. Antibiotics have not been proven to have any huge effect. Senior citizens, young children, people with heart or lung disease, as well as smokers are at risk for bronchitis.
You can learn more here: MedScape MayoClinic PubMed
Sputum is mucus coughed up from your respiratory tract.

Similar to chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis can be treated symptomatically. As long as the patient is getting enough oxygen, the body will recover on its own. Cough suppressants such as codeine and dextromethorphan might be prescribed. NSAIDs can help with pain relief. Antibiotics have not been proven to have any huge effect.

Senior citizens, young children, people with heart or lung disease, as well as smokers are at risk for bronchitis.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
MayoClinic
PubMed
Thursday, July 12, 2012
The more smart sounding way: Chronic bronchitis is when your mucus-producing glands in cartilaginous airways undergo hypertrophy and progressively limits airflow more and more. It can also be called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bronchitis is extremely common, and occurs when your bronchial tubes have been inflamed. Bronchi are the air passages that go from your trachea to alveoli in the lungs. You can learn more here: MedScape MayoClinic PubMed
The more smart sounding way: Chronic bronchitis is when your mucus-producing glands in cartilaginous airways undergo hypertrophy and progressively limits airflow more and more. It can also be called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Bronchitis is extremely common, and occurs when your bronchial tubes have been inflamed. Bronchi are the air passages that go from your trachea to alveoli in the lungs.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
MayoClinic
PubMed
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
The eruption usually occurs a few hours after bathing in seawater. About 98% of patients suffer from pruritus (translation: itchiness) which usually lasts about 1 to 2 weeks. It can also cause fever, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, although more rarely and usually in children as opposed to adults. Seabather’s eruption is basically an allergic reaction and will generally not require hospitalization. The specific larvae the reaction is to can vary by area. Long Island waters contain the larvae of sea anemone, while Florida waters contain thimble jellyfish larvae. You can learn more here: MedScape NYC Dept of Health
The eruption usually occurs a few hours after bathing in seawater. About 98% of patients suffer from pruritus (translation: itchiness) which usually lasts about 1 to 2 weeks. It can also cause fever, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, although more rarely and usually in children as opposed to adults.

Seabather’s eruption is basically an allergic reaction and will generally not require hospitalization. The specific larvae the reaction is to can vary by area. Long Island waters contain the larvae of sea anemone, while Florida waters contain thimble jellyfish larvae.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
NYC Dept of Health
Usually, skin cells grow deep in the skin and rise to the surface about once a month. In people with psoriasis, the immune system sends out faulty signals that causes the cycle to speed up too much. Dead skin cells build up on the skin’s surface. The most common form of psoriasis is called plaque psoriasis and appears as red patches covered with a white sheet of dead cells that have built up. Other types of psoriasis include guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic psoriasis. You can learn more here:PubMedNational Psoriasis FoundationWebMD
Usually, skin cells grow deep in the skin and rise to the surface about once a month. In people with psoriasis, the immune system sends out faulty signals that causes the cycle to speed up too much. Dead skin cells build up on the skin’s surface. The most common form of psoriasis is called plaque psoriasis and appears as red patches covered with a white sheet of dead cells that have built up. Other types of psoriasis include guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic psoriasis.

You can learn more here:
PubMed
National Psoriasis Foundation
WebMD
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
( The pericardium is the sac-like covering that protects your heart. ) Pericarditis may be associated with ailments like cancer, hypothyroidism, tuberculosis, myocarditis, autoimmune diseases, and more. When the cause is unknown, it is referred to as idiopathic pericarditis.Typical symptoms include chest pain, dry cough, breathing issues, fever, and fatigue. Generally treatment will rely on the cause. Medication might include pain medication, antibiotics, or NSAIDs (antiinflammatory drugs). Recovery time is typically about 2 weeks to 3 months.You can learn more here: PubMedCleveland Clinic
( The pericardium is the sac-like covering that protects your heart. )

Pericarditis may be associated with ailments like cancer, hypothyroidism, tuberculosis, myocarditis, autoimmune diseases, and more. When the cause is unknown, it is referred to as idiopathic pericarditis.

Typical symptoms include chest pain, dry cough, breathing issues, fever, and fatigue. Generally treatment will rely on the cause. Medication might include pain medication, antibiotics, or NSAIDs (antiinflammatory drugs). Recovery time is typically about 2 weeks to 3 months.

You can learn more here:
PubMed
Cleveland Clinic
The pathways blocks involve enzymes called cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. Specifically, by blocking COX-2, NSAIDs can relieve pain in joints, muscles, and other soft tissues. Unfortunately, non-selective NSAIDs will also block COX-1, an enzyme involved with protecting your stomach lining, increasing the risk of stomach ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems. NSAIDs were then developed to be selective for COX-2 to prevent this, but some selective NSAIDs were found to increase risks of cardiac arrest.  Long story short, use over the counter pain killers sparingly. As always, check with a doctor if any complications arise. You can learn more about NSAIDS here: PubMed OrthoInfo WebMD
The pathways blocks involve enzymes called cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. Specifically, by blocking COX-2, NSAIDs can relieve pain in joints, muscles, and other soft tissues.

Unfortunately, non-selective NSAIDs will also block COX-1, an enzyme involved with protecting your stomach lining, increasing the risk of stomach ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems. NSAIDs were then developed to be selective for COX-2 to prevent this, but some selective NSAIDs were found to increase risks of cardiac arrest. 

Long story short, use over the counter pain killers sparingly. As always, check with a doctor if any complications arise.

You can learn more about NSAIDS here:
PubMed
OrthoInfo
WebMD
Chemical burns are just as bad as regular burns, but aren’t necessarily as obvious.
If you’re working in a lab, safety always comes first. Wear your lab coat and goggles, long pants, etc. Bring a change of clothing just in case you spill and have to get rid of your clothes. Make sure you check out the MSDS page for any chemicals that touch your skin if you can. They will usually have more information on how to treat specific burns. Always remember to go see a doctor if the burn gets worse!
You can learn more here:
LiveStrong.com WebMD 

Chemical burns are just as bad as regular burns, but aren’t necessarily as obvious.

If you’re working in a lab, safety always comes first. Wear your lab coat and goggles, long pants, etc. Bring a change of clothing just in case you spill and have to get rid of your clothes. Make sure you check out the MSDS page for any chemicals that touch your skin if you can. They will usually have more information on how to treat specific burns. Always remember to go see a doctor if the burn gets worse!

You can learn more here:

LiveStrong.com 
WebMD